Scanning probe microscopy SPM is a type of microscopy that images a surface using a physical probe that scans the specimen. There are several microscopy techniques built upon AFM technology. Some allow manipulation of biomolecules by taking advantage of the force sensing capability of AFM probes . Dip-pen nanolithography  is one such technique. The probe in NSOM is a nanometer-sized optical aperture created at a scanning tip, which enables optical imaging beyond diffraction limit . This configuration was used to build scanning near-field photolithography SNP .
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Other techniques - Inkjet printing. Scanning probe microscopy such as STM and atomic-force microscopy AFM are well known for their capability to visualize surfaces of materials with the highest spatial resolution. In terms of structural characterizations, AFM can attain a lateral resolution of 0. These high resolutions are reached for crystalline systems.
For noncrystalline surfaces or soft-and-sticky surfaces, it is more difficult to achieve high resolution. AFM-based lithography is a very active area of research because of the flexibility and simplicity of the technique. AFM tips may be used to carry catalysts to selectively induce surface reactions, or as a pen to attach molecules on surfaces in DPN and its derivative techniques.
Scanning Probe Microscopy in Biology with Potential Applications in Forensics
AFM tips may also be used as an electrode to direct local oxidation on surfaces. Shi Zhang Qiao, Scanning probe microscopy such as scanning tunneling microscope STM and atomic focal microscopy AFM are well known for their capability to visualize surfaces of materials with the highest spatial resolution. Antoniu Moldovan, Scanning probe microscopy offered scientists tools that allow them to analyze and control matter at scales that span more than four orders of magnitude: from visualizing and manipulating atoms at the subnanometer level to measuring the shape, dynamics, and interactions of living cells.
With the continuous development of control electronics, SPMs are becoming more and more reliable, versatile, and easy to use. They are already indispensable tools in a number of fields, from probing mechanical and electric properties of materials used in next-generation electronics, to helping cellular biologists probe antigen-antibody interactions at cellular level, to aiding in art preservation efforts.
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An important trend in the development of SPM is the increase of overall acquisition speed, in order to allow the visualization of a larger variety of real-time processes. Also, control over the functionalization of the probe at the atomic level would allow new insights in the study of chemical reactions and routinely carry out SPM with chemical sensitivity at the molecular and atomic scale. Roy L.
Johnston, in Frontiers of Nanoscience , Scanning probe microscopy covers a group of techniques in which surface-supported NPs are imaged at high sometimes atomic resolution by rastering an atomically sharp tip across the surface. The tip is rastered over the sample to measure the surface topography.
Scanning tunnelling microscopy STM : A fine tip is again brought extremely close to the surface and a voltage is applied between the tip and the conducting sample until a tunnelling current flows, which is sensitive to the tip-surface distance. Information can be obtained on electronic structure as well as topography.maggiegarvey.com/950.php
Scanning Probe Microscopes: Applications in Science and Technology
Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy is related to STM: allowing the electronic structure which depends on the atomic species and its environment of a surface atom to be obtained. Scanning probe microscopy SPM in its many manifestations and configurations, such as atomic force microscopy AFM , scanning tunneling microscopy STM , and scanning near-field optical microscopy SNOM , provides atomic or near-atomic-resolution surface topography, which is ideal for determining angstrom-scale surface roughness on a sample. A sharp tip is scanned in proximity to the surface of the specimen and an image is obtained from the tip—surface interactions.
Depending on the mode of operation, many different interactions can be imaged simultaneously, providing material properties along with topography and morphology information. Table 3. TABLE 3. FIM: field ion microscopy; MS: mass spectrometry. These techniques are not often employed for surface contamination analysis, primarily because of the limitation of achieving chemical contrast and thus the chemical identification of an individual atom. Chapter 5 discusses recent developments in probe microscopy, including two special techniques, scanning thermal microscopy and scanning acoustic microscopy, for characterization of particles and sub-surface features .
The application of AFM for monitoring contaminant particles is discussed in Chapter 6 in this volume . The topics in the book range from surface morphology analysis of thin film structures, oxide thin layers and superconducting structures, novel scanning probe microscopy techniques for characterization of mechanical and electrical properties, evaluation of mechanical and tribological properties of hybrid coatings and thin films. The variety of topics chosen for the book underlines the strong interdisciplinary nature of the research work in the field of scanning probe microscopy.
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